The Walled Garden

The Hague, KB, 74 G 37a April

Gentle listener, this is a tale of the heartsick singer outside the walls of the hortus conclusus.

In there my lady picks primeroles and lilyflowers, her heart a blooming rose.

But my heart sits in a cage of bone, a lark that cannot fly to peck its rose’s nectar.

I am so beset with sorrow that I must vow to leave off singing, for if she will not hear me, then my songs are but air.

…And yet, wretched as I am, I hesitate to cease my songs. 
For they are air that tastes of her.

Click here to listen to a collection of medieval songs (plus some pleasant instrumental interludes) ~ all dedicated to falling in love in the gardens of springtime.

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Below are the best links I can find to the medieval song lyrics included in the playlist, with translations where available. Songs are in a variety of languages, with many in medieval French.

Hortus Conclusus

Can Vei La Lauzeta

Que Pourroit Plus  [page 5]

Lilium Floruit

Fowles In The Frith

Ma Dame, Trop Vous Mesprenés  [page 7]

Rose, Liz, Printemps, Verdure

Ara Non Vei Luzir Solelh

Ecco La Primavera

Pictured above: A lady picking flowers in April. MS The Hague, KB, 74 G 37a

Leaders of the First Crusade: Godfrey of Bouillon

Godfrey of Bouillon, from a fresco painted by Giacomo Jaquerio in Saluzzo, northern Italy, in 1420 ca.

Godfrey of Bouillon, from a fresco painted by Giacomo Jaquerio in Saluzzo, northern Italy, in 1420 ca.

Godfrey of Bouillon (c. 1060 – 18 July 1100) was the first ruler of the Kingdom of Jerusalem and one of the main leaders of the First Crusade. He was a second son, born in an area now France and then part of the Holy Roman Empire. When Urban II preached the crusade, Godfrey and his brothers, Eustace and Baldwin, decided to gather armies and march for the Holy Land.

Godfrey played minor but consistent roles in the battles of the First Crusade. He was present at the siege of Nicaea and the battle of Dorylaeum and at the capturing of Antioch. Meanwhile, Godfrey’s landless younger brother Baldwin was making a name for himself by becoming Count of Edessa.

Godfrey of Bouillon became a crusading legend when he was one of the first over the walls at the taking of Jerusalem in 1099.

Godfrey of Bouillon

Godfrey of Bouillon

He was offered the crown and according to the later historian William of Tyre, he refused to wear a crown of gold where Christ had worn a crown of thorns. Godfrey faced difficulties in his leadership at Jerusalem, first from the Fatimids of Egypt, whom he defeated, and then from Dagobert of Pisa.

Dagebert of Pisa sailing with the other crusade leader Bohemond

Dagobert of Pisa sailing with the other crusade leader Bohemond

Dagobert of Pisa had been chosen as patriarch of Jerusalem, effectively the church authority in the new Latin kingdoms. Dagobert pushed Godfrey to concede Jerusalem to his rule and there was a ceremony held on Easter, 1100, at which Godfrey allowed Dagobert to be his heir upon Godfrey’s death. Dagobert went campaigning with the other Crusader leader, Tancred (who was Bohemond of Antioch’s nephew) and unfortunately for the Patriarch, while he was gone Godfrey died. There are conflicting accounts of how Godfrey died, probably of some kind of illness, but his death prompted the knights of Jerusalem to offer the rulership to Baldwin, Godfrey’s younger brother, instead of Dagobert.

Stained glass window of Godfrey of Bouillon in the Belfry of Boulogne-sur-Mer, France.

Stained glass window of Godfrey of Bouillon in the Belfry of Boulogne-sur-Mer, France.

Baldwin would become the first King of Jerusalem, but Godfrey would long be remembered as a crusading hero, showing up in Dante’s Divine Comedy as a warrior of Mars and in one of Tasso’s works of crusading romance.

Leaders of the First Crusade: Bohemond I of Antioch

Bohemond-I Bohemond (c. 1058-1111) was the son of Robert Guiscard (the ‘Fox’), a Norman ruler of Calabria and Apulia who had plagued the Byzantine Emperor Alexius I and taken Sicily. Bohemond travelled with his father on campaign against the Byzantines. When Robert Guiscard died, he left Bohemond as his oldest son from a first wife but the majority of his inheritances fell to Roger, his younger son from a more recent marriage. Bohemond was naturally annoyed and so he made war against his brother Roger. Eventually this culminated in Bohemond settling for the southern-Italian city Taranto and some other possessions, although Bohemond was still an ambitious man.

When the crusaders marched through Amalfi in Italy, where Bohemond was campaigning, he got caught by the crusading fever and began to ready himself right away. As one of the most prominent leaders of the First Crusade, Bohemond managed to cut a deal with the Byzantine Emperor Alexius I that he could go through Constantinople. He also lead the crusaders through Asia Minor, which was no easy task. The Byzantine princess and historian, a fourteen year old when she met Bohemond, wrote an engaging description of the Norman crusader: For by his nostrils nature had given free passage for the high spirit which bubbled up from his heart. A certain charm hung about this man but was partly marred by a general air of the horrible.

Bohemond, sketch by Lowgan (on newgrounds):

Bohemond, sketch by Lowgan (on newgrounds)

In 1098, Bohemond played a large role in capturing Antioch. He managed to get a wealthy weapons maker called Firouz to spy for him within Antioch. Firouz was an Armenian Christian who was unhappy with his position in the Turkish government. His wife had been seduced by a Turkish soldier, he had been fined and he was ready to betray the Turkish rule in Antioch. One day Firouz threw a rope ladder over the wall for Bohemond’s men, inciting the Armenians within Antioch to massacre the Turks, leading to the crusaders taking the city.

Boehmond captures Antioch by L.Gallait, 1840, "Croisades, origines et consequences"

Boehmond captures Antioch by L.Gallait, 1840, “Croisades, origines et consequences”

After he and Raymond of Toulouse secured Antioch against the reinforcements of the Turkish Atabeg, Kerbogha, Raymond left to pursue more territory and Bohemond stayed behind in Antioch. He kicked Raymond’s forces out, seizing the city for himself. But neither Raymond of Toulouse nor the Byzantine Empire were on Bohemond’s side. Bohemond’s family had harried the Byzantines and he was far too brash and Norman for the Komnenian family’s liking. He’d also regularly insulted Raymond, who believed he had found the Holy Lance – Bohemond wasn’t so sure.

At any rate, Bohemond got himself captured by a Turkish commander in 1100 and was held for three years before anyone ransomed him. In the meantime, his nephew Tancred had been ruling Antioch and irritating the Byzantines.

Tancred

Tancred

Suffering more setbacks to expansion, Bohemond returned to Europe in 1104 and began building an army. He told tales of high chivalry and adventure and he was so charismatic and illustrious that Henry I, King of England, forbade him from coming ashore since he would have such sway over the nobles. But he managed to to win the hand of Constance, daughter of the King of France. They had a son, Bohemond, who would later rule Antioch as Bohemond II.

The Marriage of Bohemond and Constance

The Marriage of Bohemond and Constance

Foolishly, Alexius used his new army of over 30,000 to try and attack Emperor Alexius I. He was defeated and had to give way to the Treaty of Devol in 1108, which was intended to make Antioch a vassal state of Byzantium and install a Greek Patriarch for the church there. For Bohemond, this was the end of his expansionist dreams and he died a few years later in Sicily. For his nephew Tancred, who had more than a pinch of his uncle’s zeal, the treaty was an affront to his right of conquest. So in actuality, Antioch was not made a vassal state of Byzantium until 1158.

Chartres Cathedral

Chartres Cathedral, Old Testament jamb figures including (from the left) Melchizedek, Abraham with Isaac, Moses, Samuel, and David c. 1205

I can’t stop gazing at this door jamb sculpture from the Gothic Chartres Cathedral. Abraham holds his son Isaac, ready to sacrifice him with the knife (half broken unfortunately) held high to cut Isaac’s throat. But Abraham is turning away from his son, craning his neck because, if you look closely enough, you’ll see there is an angel emerging from above him…He will not have to sacrifice his own son. And underneath their feet is the ram, who will replace the boy Isaac as sacrifice.

Notre-Dame de Paris

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Notre Dame de Paris 2 by Albert Lebourg

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Notre Dame de Paris by ~NeworldPhoto on deviantart

‘That most terrible church of the most glorious Virgin Mary, mother of God, deservedly shines out, like the sun among stars. And although some speakers, by their own free judgment, because [they are] able to see only a few things easily, may say that some other is more beautiful, I believe however, respectfully, that, if they attend more diligently to the whole and the parts, they will quickly retract this opinion.’
—Jean de Jandun, Tractatus de laudibus Parisius

Clovis I, king of the Franks

Clovis I by François-Louis Dejuinne (1786-1844)

Clovis (c. 466-511) was the man who united the Franks under a single king rather than a group of chieftains.

Clovis’s wife Clotilde was a Catholic and converted Clovis to Catholicism, even though the ruling elite of the Franks were ordinarily Arians. Catholics believe that Jesus Christ is equal to God the Father in divinity whereas Arians believed that Christ was divine but not equal to God. Clovis’s baptism into Catholicism meant that the inhabitants of Gaul would become Catholic and the decline of Arianism commenced.

Clovis was the son of Childeric I, who is considered the founder of the Merovingian dynasty, although it was Clovis who united Gaul.